Thus, soil erosion is a continuous process and may occur either at a relatively unnoticed rate or an alarming rate contributing to copious loss of the topsoil. Either way, soil erosion can lead to severe environmental degradation since large areas of land can become useless due to the erosion of soil. depletion of nutrients or the toxicity due to acidity or alkalinity (salinization) or water logging. Causes of Soil Erosion Urbanization has major implications on the soil degradation process. Some other factors as deforestation, extensive cultivation on marginal land, improper cultivation practices like mono-cropping, poor manuring, misuse of fertilizers or excess use of fertilizers, excessive irrigation, over-grazing, fragility of soil, adverse weather and mining may accelerate the process of soil degradation. According to an estimate of 1992, every year 20.2 million tonnes of NPK is removed by growing crops. Trafficking (by animals as well as by vehicles) and cultivation are the primary causes of this form of soil degradation. According to a Pereira and Muñoz-Rojas (2017) synthesis, soil erosion is one of the major causes, evidence of, and key variables used to assess and understand land degradation. The factors below can trigger degradation or deterioration of the soil; For example, physical causes involve the depletion of fertile topsoil due to water or wind erosion. In the broadest sense, it comprises alterations in the soil’s chemical property that determine nutrient availability. In India pasture land area is decreasing day by day due to expansion of agricultural land. Year after year, huge acres of land lost due to soil erosion, contamination, and pollution. The effects of soil erosion go beyond the loss of fertile land. The decline in soil quality as a result of agricultural chemical fertilizers also further leads to water and land pollution thereby lowering the land’s worth on earth. Soil erosion decreases soil fertility, which can negatively affect crop yields. Human activities such as poor farming practices may also deplete soil nutrients thus diminishing soil fertility. Because soil degradation contributes to land degradation, it also means that it creates a significant loss of arable land. The reduction of soil nutrients because of alkalinity or acidity or waterlogging are all categorized under the chemical components of soil degradation. This is otherwise known as conservation tillage, which means tillage mechanisms targeted at making very minimal changes to the soil’s natural condition and at the same time improving the soil’s productivity. Soil degradation is the decline in soil condition caused by its improper use or poor management, usually for agricultural, industrial or urban purposes. This is a global problem. Therefore, the misuse or excessive use of fertilizers increases the rate of soil degradation by destroying the soil’s biological activity and builds up of toxicities through incorrect fertilizer use. Recognizing The Challenges with Preventing Or Solving Land Degradation In addition to erosion, soil quality is affected by other aspects of agriculture. Vegetation cover primarily promotes the binding of the soil together and soil formation, hence when it is removed it considerably affects the capabilities of the soil such as aeration, water holding capacity, and biological activity. Soil degradation has been defined as a process that leads to decline in the fertility or future productive capacity of soil as a result of human activity (United Nations Environment Programme, 1993). Thus soil becomes deficient in essential minerals and this results in productivity loss. The latest data provided by Sehgal and Abrol (1994) show that the total degraded land in India is 187.8 million ha, of which 162.4 million ha is degraded due to soil erosion alone (Table 27.6). Faulty irrigation projects have resulted not only in the soil infertility, they have also decreased water table of the country’s largest lakes by 80 percent and more, exposing shores to the effects of rapid drying out and land degradation . However, deforestation can be cut down and this can create an impressive way of reshaping and restoring forests and vegetation cover. For this reason, the transformed land is unable to soak up water, making flooding more frequent. A diagrammatic representation of the causes of soil acidity showing the importance of product removal and nitrate leaching in the process . What are the characters Mendel selected for his experiments on pea plant? The main reasons for unproductiveness or degradation of soils are as follows: Most of the Indian soils are deficient in nutrients and organic matter. The latest data revealed that erosion has rendered 200 million hectares or 36% of the total area of the country barren (Table 27.1). Extension of cultivation to marginal land: Due to tremendous population increase the use of land is increasing day by day. Soil degradation is a global phenomenon. Disposal of oil shales, heavy metal contamination of soil and spillage of crude oils adversely affect soil micro flora which ultimately affect soil productivity and cause soil degradation. The degradation or deterioration of soil may be caused by the below factors; Physical factors, for example, loss of fertile topsoil due to water or wind erosion. Many people do conceive the idea of soil degradation but a good number lacks the knowledge of its precise definition. Preventing salinization in the first place is thus an environmentally friendly means of offering a solution to soil degradation. Hence, there is a necessity for individuals all over the world to respect forest cover and reduce some of the human-driven actions that encourage logging. Compost Pile vs Bin – Which One is Right For You? Industrial activities, on the other hand, release toxic effluents and material wastes into the atmosphere, land, rivers, and groundwater that eventually pollute the soil and as such, it impacts on soil quality. Degradation of Natural Resources | Environment, Biosciences, Engineering and Technology (With Diagram). During last decade the nutrients deficiency has been considered as the main cause of poor productivity and crop failure. Soil degradation is a complex phenomenon derived by interaction between natural and socio economic factors. Soils are a fundamental natural resource, and are the basis for all terrestrial life. The slope of the land. 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